Kendo, in Japanese means “Way of The Sword", is a Japanese martial art of sword-fighting based on traditional samurai swordsmanship, or Kenjutsu. Kendo is a physically and mentally challenging activity that combines strong martial arts values and discipline with sport-like physical elements.
Practitioners of kendo are called Kendōka , meaning "someone who practices kendo",  or occasionally kenshi, meaning "swordsman"  and the old term of kendoists is sometimes used.

Kendo is a way to discipline the human character through the application of the principles of the katana.
To mold the mind and body.
To cultivate a vigorous spirit,
And through correct and rigid training,
To strive for improvement in the art of Kendo.
To hold in esteem human courtesy and honor.
To associate with others with sincerity.
And to forever pursue the cultivation of oneself.
Thus will one be able:
To love ones country and society;
To contribute to the development of culture;
And to promote peace and prosperity among all peoples.

Kendo training is quite noisy in comparison to other martial arts or sports. This is because kendōka use a shout, or kiai  to express their fighting spirit when striking. Additionally, kendōka execute fumikomi-ashi, an action similar to a stamp of the front foot, when making a strike.
Like some other martial arts, kendōka train and fight barefoot. Kendo is ideally practiced in a purpose-built dōjō, though standard halls and other venues are often used. An appropriate venue has a clean and well-sprung wooden floor, suitable for fumikomi-ashi.

Modern kendo techniques comprise both strikes and thrusts. Strikes are only made towards specified target areas (datotsu-bui) on the wrists, head, or body, all of which are protected by armour. The targets are men, sayu-men or yoko-men (upper left or right side of the men), the right kote at any time, the left kote when it is in a raised position and the left or right side of the dō. Thrusts (tsuki) are only allowed to the throat. However, since an incorrectly performed thrust could cause serious injury to the opponent's neck, thrusting techniques in free practice and competition are often restricted to senior dan graded kendōka. Overall Kendo is the practice of the Martial Art of the Samurai Traditional Japanese Sword.

Partly extracted from Wikipedia